Of the estimated 51 million U.S. children between the ages of 6 and 17, about 27.4 million play sports in some form or another, casual or oganized, according to a 2012 household survey by Sports Marketing Surveys. Of that group, only 15.7 million play sports on at least a regular or frequent basis. Participation rates are lower at the pre-high school level where community sports programs predominate.
Below are statistics on the benefits of sport participation and regular physical activity, the modern barriers to sport participation, and the consequences of inactivity:
Regular physical activity benefits youth in many ways, including helping build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints; helping control weight and reduce fat; and preventing or delaying the development of high blood pressure (GAO, 2012).
Childhood and adolescent sports participation is a significant predictor of young adults' participation in sports and physical fitness activities. Adolescents who play sports are eight times as likely to be active at age 24 as adolescents who do not play sports (Sports Participation as Predictors of Participation in Sports and Physical Fitness Activities in Young Adulthood, Perkins, 2004).
There is substantial evidence that physical activity can help improve academic achievement, including grades and standardized test scores. Further, such activity can affect cognitive skills, attitudes and academic behavior, including enhanced concentration, attention, and improved classroom behavior (GAO, 2012).
High school athletes are more likely than non-athletes to attend college and get degrees; team captains, MVPs achieve in school at even higher rates (US Dept. of Education, 2005).
A number of studies provide support for the premise that physical activity, and sports in particular, can positively affect aspects of personal development among young people, such as self-esteem, goal-setting, and leadership. However, evidence indicates that the quality of coaching is a key factor in maximizing positive effects (GAO, 2012).
Compared to non-athlete peers, female high school athletes are less likely to be sexually active, to use drugs, and to suffer from depression (Women's Sports Foundation, 2004).
More benefits can be found at "Human Capital Model" on p. 11 of "Designed to Move" (2012)
Today, the evolving and complex youth sport system in the U.S. necessitates significant resources to develop an athlete and play competitive sports (Sport Participation Rates Among Underserved American Youth, University of Florida's Sport Policy & Research Collaborative, 2014). The barriers to participation emerge early, with the rise of grade school travel teams and elite sport training options that are not accessible to many lower-income kids. While only 20 percent of U.S. households report an annual income of at least $100,000, 33 percent of households participating in sports enjoy that income level. Travel-team parents spend an average of $2,266 annually on their child's sports participation, and at the elite levels some families spend more than $20,000 per year.
There's a relative lack of access for minority children. Sport participation rates for white children exceed that of African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asian kids. Furthermore, data on other historically marginalized groups such as Native-American children are not even reported in governmentally funded studies that track physical activity in youth. (University of Florida's SPARC, 2014). In the Native American community of San Felipe Pueblo, N.M, the only organized sport option is an after-school soccer program serving 250 of the 1,500 kids who live there and which is organized by a non-profit devoted to addressing childhood obesity in tribal areas (Crystal Echohawk, Notah Begay III Foundation). See the chart at right created by ESPN and culled from research.
Access is also shaped by geography and gender. In "low socio-economic schools," those that serve the highest percentage of kids on free or reduced-price lunches, only 24.6 percent of eighth graders play sports. At "middle socio-economic schools," it's 30.9 percent. For "high socio-economic schools," it's 36.1 percent. Despite major gains in among girls over the past four decades delivered by Title IX legislation and enforcement, the participation rates for girls remains 2 to 5 percent lower than for boys. (Bridging the Gap, RWJF, 2012). There are 10.6 million girls between the ages of 6 and 17 who play a sport at least once a year, compared to 16.5 million boys (Sports & Fitness Industry Association, 2012)
In Washington, D.C., the percentage of athletic opportunities provided to public high school students has been as low as 15 percent for boys and 6 percent for girls (Progress Without Equity, Women's Sports Foundation, 2011). Disparities exist by state, too. Northeast and Midwest states generally offer more participation opportunities than those in the South and West. Georgia has the lowest rate for girls (22 percent), Florida the lowest for boys (30 percent) (Decade of Decline, Women's Sports Foundation, 2012).Children with physical and intellectual disabilities often experience very limited opportunities in their communities. Despite considerable growth in sport options in recent years driven in part by anti-discrimination laws, one estimate suggests that physical activity levels for children with disabilities remain as much as 4.5 times lower than those without disabilities. (University of Florida SPARC, 2014)
Fading is the era of sandlot or pickup ball, a form of play that organically promoted innovation and fitness among generations of Americans. A leading annual survey of participation trends notes that "casual play continues to decline dramatically."(SGMA, 2010) Free play has been shown to produce higher levels of physical activity than organized sports. One study found that 43 percent of youth sports practice was spent being inactive. (Physical Activity During Youth Sport Practices, 2011)There's a lack of mainstream options for the moderately interested athlete. As soon as travel teams are formed, in-town rec leagues often begin to fade. As kids move into adolescence, there's also less support for intramurals than in the past. About 23 percent of middle schools and 40 percent of high schools do not offfer intramural sports (Bridging the Gap, RWJF, 2012)
Local municipalities are often unable to provide sufficient places to play. Federal matching funds for urban parks have been slashed over the past decade, as has support from the Land and Water Conservation Fund, which helped get more than 40,000 athletic fields built, most of them between the 1960s and 1980 (www.outdoorindustry.org, other sources). In other areas, such as Colorado Springs, Colo., cuts to local budgets have made difficult the upkeep of existing public parks.
High school athletes account for an estimated two million concussions and other injuries, 500,000 doctor visits and 30,000 hospitalizations each year. More than 3.5 million children under age 14 receive medical treatment for sports injuries annually. According to the CDC, more than half of all sports injuries are preventable. Overuse injuries are responsible for nearly half of all sports injuries to middle and high school students (STOP Sports Injuries).
One study found that when coaches received training in skills and communicating effectively with kids, only five percent of children chose not to play the sport again. With untrained coaches, the attrition rate was 26 percent (Smoll and Smith, 1992). Yet, most youth coaches do not receive any training. Only 1 in 5 coaches of youth teams of children under age 14 say they have been trained in effective motivational technique, and just 1 in 3 in skills and tactics in the primary sport they coach, according to original data produced for the Aspen Institute's Sports & Society Program by the Sports & Fitness Industry Association through a survey of 43,000 households in 2013.
Direct and Indirect Consequences
Falling sport participation rates
Most of our largest sports are seeing major drop-offs in participation by the end of the middle school years, as sport league opportunities consolidate around the most talented, committed or well-resourced players. Since 2007, the number of core participants in baseball, at all ages, is down 21.7 percent; tackle football is down 13.8 percent, basketball 9.4 percent, and outdoor soccer 2.5 percent. Some newer, smaller sports have seen increases; lacrosse, notably, is up 15 percent and rugby up 14.2 percent. Hockey, due in part to major policy interventions, has reversed declines and is now flat since 2007. But on balance, millions of kids are fleeing sports. In just one year, from 2011 to 2012, participation in team sports in any form -- casual, regular or frequent -- fell from 54 percent to 50 percent among children ages 6 to 17 (SFIA Team Sports Report, 2013)
Parents of kids who make travel and other elite teams say they're happy -– 91 percent say their kid's club coach is great (University of Florida, ESPN Magazine, 2013). However, opinion about local youth sport leagues is not so positive. Parents of boys under age 15 more often have a favorable opinion of the NFL (71 percent), MLB (68 percent) and NBA (58 percent) than they do of their community youth football (49 percent), baseball (57 percent) and basketball (49 percent) leagues (ESPN, 2012)
Low Physical Activity Rates
Starting at age 9 -- when children often develop a self-concept of whether or not they are an athlete -- physical activity rates begin to drop sharply. By age 15, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity declines 75 percent, a higher rate than in Europe (Designed to Move, 2012). At that point, they average only 49 minutes per weekday and 35 minutes per weekend (Journal of the American Medical Assocaition, 2008) Only one in three children is physically active every day (Fitness.gov). Among high school students, that figure is 28.7 percent. The prevalence of having been active on a daily basis was higher among male (38.3 percent) than female (18.5 percent) students; higher among white male (40.4 percent), black male (35.2), and Hispanic male (35.6) than white female (19.7), black female (16.9), and Hispanic female (16.9) students (CDC, 2012)
High obesity rates
Childhood obesity rates have nearly tripled. The percentage of children ages 6-11 who are obese increased from 7 percent in 1980 to 18 percent in 2010; among children ages 12 to 19, that figure grew from 5 percent to 18 percent (Centers for Disease Control). One study found that among 17 developed nations, the U.S. had the highest rates of childhood obesity among those ages 5-19 (National Academy of Sciences, 2013). There are significant racial and ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence, with Hispanics and African Americans experiencing higher rates than whites (CDC, 2010).
More than a quarter of all Americans between the ages of 17 to 24 are too fat to serve in the military. Many are turned away by recruiters and others never try to join. Of those who attempt to join, roughly 15,000 fail their entrance physicals every year because they are overweight. Obesity rates among children and young adults have increased so dramatically that they threaten the future strength of our military. (Too Fat to Fight, 2010)
Direct and indirect medical costs related to obesity are estimated at $147 billion a year, twice the size of the budget for the U.S. Department of Education. Direct costs are expected to more than double by 2030. Adults who are obese will face decreased earning potential, and employers will pay in the form increased health care costs. (Designed to Move, 2012)>
Today's children are likely to be the first generation to live shorter, less healthy lives than their parents due to obesity and other related diseases. (Designed to Move)
Opportunities for Progress
Stakeholders want guidance, solutions. A full 91 percent of Americans say sports are imporant to child development, while 94 percent say more needs to be done to protect their health and safety (Kelton Research, ACSM, 2011). Concerns about concussions, other injuries and burnout are prompting organizations to revise policies and practices. Health groups are also starting to better mobilize around using sport as a tool to encourage exercise.